Demoralization as a Factor in a Vocational Rehabilitation Population Using the Demoralization Scale (RCd) of the MMPI-2-RF
Wishart, Alfred B.
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BACKGROUND: Demoralization has come to be recognized as an essential element of psychological health. Its prevalence and role as a factor in discreet populations has been studied such as with medical and psychiatric populations though not in the field of Vocational Rehabilitation (VR). In most of this research, the Demoralization Scale (RCd) of the MMPI-2-RF was not used. This study looks at the prevalence of demoralization in a VR population using the RCd. SUBJECTS: The subjects for this study (N = 54) were evaluated for vocational potential by the University Rehabilitation Services (URS) in the Department of Rehabilitation Counseling at the Southwestern School of Health Professions. They were referred by the Department of Assistive and Rehabilitative Services (DARS) of Texas except for one client who was self-referred. METHOD: Basic demographic data (age, ethnicity, IQ, and gender), along with the scores of the MMPI-2-RF scales were gathered. Comparisons were made between the study population and normative populations for the prevalence and degree of demoralization. Further, two correlation analyses were run. The first was for intercorrelations between the RCd and the other Restructured Clinical Scales (RCS) of the MMPI-2-RF and the Clinical Scales (CS) of the MMPI-2. The second, was for intercorrelations between the RCd and other, selected scales of the MMPI-2. RESULTS: The prevalence of demoralization in the study population was higher than in the general population. There were data to suggest that the degree of demoralization in the study population was greater than in the general population, though further research is needed to confirm this. The data on the intercorrelations between the RCd, the RCS, and the CS replicated earlier research; variations are discussed. Unexpected correlations between the RCd and selected scales for the study population were noted and discussed. DISCUSSION: DISCUSSION: The higher prevalence of demoralization in the study population than in the normative population bears particular significance for VR. Research has shown that demoralization is a key factor in psychological health and in VR. The degree of demoralization in the study population is high and further research is needed to determine if there is are greater degrees of demoralization in a VP population as compare to a normative population. For correlations of the RCd to other scales, there were several unexpected differences in the intercorrelations between the RCd, the RCS, the CS. These data suggest that the study population may have a higher prevalence of somatic symptoms and antisocial traits, and a lower prevalence of cynicism. The strong correlation between the RCd and the WRK scale suggests that demoralization may be a key factor in VR. The absence of recent data on the prevalence of demoralization in the general population diminished the generalizability of the findings. However, the results of this study revealed gaps in the literature that provide direction for future investigations. [Keywords: demoralization, hope, vocational rehabilitation, restructured clinical scales, MMPI-2, MMPI-2-RF]