Effects of naphthalene and phenanthrene on the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio (Holthuis).
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The biological effects of two petroleum derived aromatic hydrocarbons-- naphthalene and phenanthene--on the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were investigated in the laboratory. For naphthalene, the effects of salinity stress on acute toxicity and whole body uptake were studied. For phenanthrene, the following parameters were included: 24 h TLm (median lethal tolerance); effects of salinity stress on acute toxicity, uptake-release kinetics (whole body), and water permeability during phenanthrene exposure; acute and chronic effects of phenanthrene on larval and postlarval growth and development. Salinity effects were more pronounced in the naphthalene studies, while phenanthrene had a greater overall toxicity. In development studies, chronic phenanthrene exposure resulted in physical abnormalities and decreased size in postlarvae. These effects disappeared after shrimp were returned to uncontaminated seawater.