Efficacy of an Early Biopsychosocial Intervention for Patients with Acute Temporomandibular Disorder-Related Pain: a Six- to Ten-Year Follow Up Study
Fraley, Sarah Elizabeth
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A long-term follow up study was conducted to further evaluate the efficacy of an early biopsychosocial intervention for patients with acute high risk (HR) temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Subjects from Gatchel and colleagues’ one-year outcome study (Gatchel, Stowell, Wildenstein, Riggs, & Ellis, 2006), and two- to six-year follow up study (Gatchel, Potter, Hinds, & Ingram, 2011) were contacted to assess pain and psychosocial measures six to ten years post intake. An early intervention (EI) group had received cognitive behavioral skills training and biofeedback, while a nonintervention (NI) group had received no intervention. EI group subjects demonstrated significant improvement as well as maintenance of gains in several psychosocial domains, including coping skills and reduction in depression scores relative to NI group subjects. EI group subjects also showed a decreasing trend in jaw pain-related healthcare visits relative to NI group subjects, providing further evidence for reduced costs associated with early interventions. The present study supports the findings of the earlier one-year outcome study and two- to six-year follow up study, indicating that an early biopsychosocial intervention is beneficial for patients with acute TMD. In utilizing this approach to treat patients in the acute stage of TMD, these patients are less likely to develop chronic TMD, and to be impacted long-term by the physical, emotional, and financial aspects of TMD.