Analysis of Aurora B Regulation and Signaling
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Aurora B is a serine/threonine kinase that functions in a complex with two other chromosomal passenger proteins called INCENP and Survivin. Its function is implicated in a variety of processes related to mitosis, such as chromosome condensation, regulation of arm cohesion, spindle assembly, chromosome bi-orientation and cytokinesis. During the cell cycle, the level of this protein is tightly controlled and its deregulated abundance is suspected to contribute to aneuploidy. The cell cycle profile for Aurora B is reminiscent of those for substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), an ubiquitin ligase essential for mitotic progression. Here, we showed that Aurora B is a substrate of APC/C both in vitro and in vivo. Aurora B is efficiently ubiquitinated iv in an in vitro reconstituted system by APC/C that had been activated by Cdh1. The recognition of Aurora B by APC/CCdh1 is specific as it requires the presence of a conserved KEN-box motif at the amino terminus of Aurora B. Degradation of Aurora B at the end of mitosis requires Cdh1 in vivo as the reduction of Cdh1 level by RNA interference stabilizes Aurora B protein. We conclude that, as a key mitotic regulator, Aurora B is degraded by APC/CCdh1 in late mitosis. Aurora B lies at the heart of the cellular mechanism that resolves synthelic and merotelic attachments. A failure to eliminate such events results in gain or loss of chromosomes. Therefore, identifying the physiological substrates of Aurora B is of pivotal importance for research. We screened Aurora B substrates using an in vitro expression cloning system. However, the methodology we employed didn't lead to candidate substrates to be further validated by more rigorous in vivo approaches. The use of high concentrations of misfolded recombinant Aurora B was partially responsible for the loss of specificity. Therefore, purifying active recombinant Aurora B has become a primary goal for future biochemical and structural work. Two molecular chaperones Hsp90 and Cdc37 assist the folding of a variety of kinases in vivo, among which Aurora B is also a candidate. This gave us the final idea of expressing Aurora B-INCENP complexes in bacteria via the coexpression of Hsp90-Cdc37 molecular chaperones.