Sylvatic dengue: evolution, emergence, and impact on human health

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Sylvatic dengue: evolution, emergence, and impact on human health

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dc.contributor.advisor Scott C. Weaver en_US
dc.creator Nikolaos Vasilakis en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2011-12-20T16:05:45Z
dc.date.available 2008-06-17 en_US
dc.date.available 2011-12-20T16:05:45Z
dc.date.created 2007-12-21 en_US
dc.date.issued 2007-10-24 en_US
dc.identifier.other etd-12212007-070652 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2152.3/299
dc.description.abstract Dengue viruses (DENV) are the most important arboviral pathogens in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. Transmission includes a sylvatic, enzootic cycle between nonhuman primates and arboreal mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, and an urban, endemic/epidemic cycle between Aedes aegypti, a mosquito with larval development in peridomestic water containers, and human reservoir hosts. All 4 serotypes of endemic DENV evolved independently from ancestral sylvatic viruses and have become both ecologically and evolutionarily distinct. The independent evolutionary events that resulted in the emergence of DENV were facilitated by the expansion of DENV progenitors’ host range in Asia to new vectors and hosts that occurred gradually over a period of several hundred years. Emerging viral pathogens often become human pathogens by changing their host range from another vertebrate organism. This study assessed the likelihood of current sylvatic DENV-2 strains to emerge into the human transmission cycle by investigating the factors that facilitate their emergence. My analysis of sylvatic and endemic DENV-2 strains’ ability to replicate in two surrogate human model hosts, determined that adaptation to humans is probably not a necessary component of sylvatic dengue emergence. Then, through an analysis of several sylvatic DENV-2, I demonstrated that both endemic and sylvatic DENV-2 share similar rates of evolutionary change and patterns of natural selection. These findings imply that the potential of future DENV re-emergence from the sylvatic cycle is high. Subsequently, phylogenetic analysis of virus genomes isolated from febrile patients in Nigeria during DENV-2 activity, demonstrated that unrecognized outbreaks of sylvatic DENV-2 in humans are possible. However, their re-emergence into the endemic cycle would be limited by homotypic immunity mediated by virus neutralizing antibodies. en_US
dc.format.medium electronic en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.rights Copyright © is held by the author. Presentation of this material on the TDL web site by The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston was made possible under a limited license grant from the author who has retained all copyrights in the works. en_US
dc.subject sylvatic en_US
dc.subject phylogenetics en_US
dc.subject evolution en_US
dc.subject emergence en_US
dc.subject Dengue virus en_US
dc.subject arbovirology en_US
dc.title Sylvatic dengue: evolution, emergence, and impact on human health en_US
dc.type.material text en_US
dc.type.genre dissertation en_US
thesis.degree.name PhD en_US
thesis.degree.level Doctoral en_US
thesis.degree.grantor The University of Texas Medical Branch en_US
thesis.degree.department Experimental Pathology en_US
dc.contributor.committeeMember Stanley J. Watowich en_US
dc.contributor.committeeMember Robert B. Tesh en_US
dc.contributor.committeeMember Peter W. Mason en_US
dc.contributor.committeeMember Kathryn A. Hanley en_US
dc.contributor.committeeMember D. Mark Estes en_US

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