Field Demonstration of the Performance of an Electrocoagulation System to Reduce Phosphorus and Other Substances from Dairy Lagoon Effluent
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Two upper North Bosque River segments were designated as impaired in 1998 due to point source and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution of phosphorus (P) to these segments in the watershed. As a result, two Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) were applied which called for the reduction of annual loading and annual average soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations by an average of 50%. This demonstration was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a prospective new technology, an Electrocoagulation (EC) system, to potentially aid the dairy farmers in meeting the goals set by the TMDLs. This EC system used chemical pre-treatment to coagulate and separate solids in slurry pumped from the dairy lagoon, the liquid then flowed over charged iron electrodes giving off ions that cause coagulation and precipitation of P and other metals. The configuration of the system and its components varied from event to event. To accommodate these changes, the points at which samples were taken varied as well. At all sampling events, samples were taken from the lagoon effluent, the lagoon effluent after the addition of the chemical pre-treatments, the effluent from the EC system and the residual solids. Samples were also taken where the mixture exited the centrifuge after it was added to aid in removing solids. These samples were sent to the lab where they were analyzed for solids, nutrients, metals, pH, and conductivity. In order for the EC unit to function properly, the technology provider removed large amounts of solids from the raw lagoon effluent even though its solid concentration was a low 0.6 mg/L. By the time the treated effluent reached the EC unit, concentrations of many analytes were so low it is hard to conclude whether or not it is an effective component for treating dairy lagoon effluent. Samples of effluent from the centrifuge indicated that it was the most efficient component in the system as it removed larger amounts of solids, as well as more of the nutrients and metals than any other component in the system. Overall, the performance of the system was sporadic from event to event, which may be attributed to the changes in the system that occurred. However, it was consistently effective in reducing total phosphorus (TP) and SRP, on average reducing these constituents by 96% and 99.6% respectively from the dairy lagoon effluent. Some uncertainty surrounds the efficacy of this system to reduce both TP and SRP so efficiently because both these and other nutrients are not stable and do change form. Economic data shows that costs to treat dairy lagoon effluent were $0.12 per gallon ($120 per 1,000 gallons). This cost did not include removal of residual material from the farm and will vary depending on the number of cows and volume of process generated influent entering the lagoon. This price per gallon is considerably higher than traditional methods of sludge treatment that range from $5 to $32 per 1,000 gallons of treated effluent.