Una Vision del Mundo Indigena en la Literatura Zapoteca Contemporanea
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In my dissertation, I explore how this new literature characterizes the culture and worldview of the Zapotee people. I focus on collections of poetry by Mario Molina Cruz and Javier Castellanos MartÃnez, VolcÃ¡n de PÃ©talos. Ya'byalhje xtak yejÃ©, Lhu be. La raÃz del viento, and Yell chia Ihen xtilla. Mi pueblo y mi palabra as well as the first indigenous novel by Javier Castellano MartÃnez, Cantares de los vientos primerizos. Wila che be ze Ihao. My dissertation departs from early works in the indigenista tradition, which failed to define Indians' perspectives of social problems and an Indian worldview because mestizo Mexican writers projected their vision of revolutionary MÃ©xico as a predominantly mestizo or Europeanized society, ignoring the Indian segment of the population. With the writings of Mario Molina Cruz and Javier Castellanos MartÃnez, two native Zapotec writers, I demonstrate that this new literature portrays an indigenous world, one which lacks the common violent conflict between the mainstream-mestizo national culture and the indigenous culture with the many stereotypes projected by early and mid-twentieth century indigenista literature. Posited on the importance of cultural and linguistical survival, Molina Cruz's and Castellanos MartÃnez's literary works reflect a strong commitment to their own political and ideological purposes as they use their texts as a means of expressing specific ideological concerns. My analysis considers the social and political circumstances under which each author worked and examines their writings in the larger context of Mexican contemporary political and historical issues. Various elements of characterization are considered in the poetry including: (a) the woman's role; (b) Zapotec cultural issues; (c) the poetic voice; (d) Mexican sociopolitical issues; and (e) use and symbolism of nature. The analysis of Castellanos MartÃnez's novel is based on (a) characters' psychological complexity; (b) narrative techniques; (c) Indigenous cultural issues; (d) Mexican national culture and Indigenous cultures; (e) the narrative viewpoint; and (f) Mexican sociopolitical issues. Molina Cruz and Castellanos MartÃnez, as well as many other Indigenous writers, are writing a new chapter of the Mexican literature. This Indigenous literature reflects real Zapotec beliefs and worldview, while concurrently demonstrating both a critique of Mexican politics and contemporary history and a self-critical awareness of their own positionality therein. Furthermore, these works serve not only as an awakening for the Indigenous population, raising their consciousness and strengthening their self-cultural affirmation, but also as a cali to the mestizo mainstream for full recognition that the Mexican nation is formed by several cultures.