Rhopalocera of the Llano Estacado: biosystematics, biogeography, and ecology

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Title: Rhopalocera of the Llano Estacado: biosystematics, biogeography, and ecology
Author: Sanders, Richard
Abstract: At approximately 96 ,000 km2 , the Llano Estacado is the largest nonmountainous land formation in North America . Prior to this research , in terms of Rhopalocera , it was one of the least -studied large distinct areas remaining on the continent . A total of 188 species of Rhopalocera known or implicated (including dubia ) to occur in or adjacent to the Llano Estacado and its associated escarpments are identified in an annotated checklist . Discussion of biosystematic positions and nomenclature , with special attention to species and subspecies levels , identifies the taxa within the context of the literature . Biogeographical occurrences in the Llano Estacado and its associated escarpments are summarized , with new range information being provided for many species . Data from an intensively studied 13 ,926 km^ section of the Llano Estacado and adjacent Rolling Plains enables collective use of the 101 species recorded there as a bioindicator group in representation of the Comanchian and Kansan biotic provinces , their interface , and habitats . Seasonal occurrences are also addressed . Habitats are divided into range , mesa , escarpment , playa , urban , cotton , grain sorghum , and alfalfa categories . Phi coefficient values are computed and clustered for biotic provinces and habitats using UPGMA , single linkage , and complete linkage sequential agglomerative hierarchical nested polythetic techniques with methods of arbitrary tie -breaking , single linkage resolution , and suboptimal fusions available for each clustering algorithm . Total species richness values for the Comanchian (S = 71 ) and Kansan (S = 78 ) biotic province sections are lower than that of their interface (S = 92 ) . The cotton and grain sorghum categories form a ball cluster in each dendrogram and are most restrictive in terms of species richness (S = 32 ) . The escarpment habitat is consistently the final object to cluster in each method and has the highest species richness (S = 92 ) of the habitat categories . Ecological findings include evidence that both natural conditions and anthropogenic factors in the form of large -scale monocrop agriculture and range grazing have collectively contributed to formation of a refugium on the biotic province interface . Recommendation is made for its preservation .
URI: http : / /hdl .handle .net /2346 /21685
Date: 1991-12

Citation

Rhopalocera of the Llano Estacado: biosystematics, biogeography, and ecology. Doctoral dissertation, Texas Tech University. Available electronically from http : / /hdl .handle .net /2346 /21685 .

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