Acute and developmental toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles (ZnO, TiO2, Fe2O3, and CuO) in Xenopus laevis

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Title: Acute and developmental toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles (ZnO, TiO2, Fe2O3, and CuO) in Xenopus laevis
Author: Nations, Shawna L.
Abstract: ZnO , TiO2 , Fe2O3 , and CuO nanomaterials (20 -100 nm ) were evaluated to determine toxicity of acute exposure using the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX ) protocol . Acute exposure to the tested metal oxide nanomaterials did not increase mortality or decrease hatchability , however these nanomaterials did inhibit growth . Exposure to either TiO2 or Fe2O3 inhibited growth of tadpoles with exposure to 1000 mg /L of metal oxide . Exposure to CuO or ZnO inhibited growth of Xenopus laevis at concentrations of 10 mg /L or greater . Copper oxide and ZnO exposure also produced malformations in tadpoles , and malformation EC values were determined from the malformation data . An EC15 of 39 .29 mg /L CuO and an EC50 of 10 .26 mg /L ZnO was observed for total malformations . Due to the toxicity observed with ZnO and CuO nanomaterials exposure , chronic developmental assays were conducted with ZnO and CuO . Xenopus laevis tadpoles were exposed to metal oxide nanomaterials from larval stage through completion of metamorphosis . Nanomaterials were dispersed via sonication methods into reconstituted moderately hard water test solutions . A flow -through system was utilized to decrease the likelihood of the depletion in metal oxide concentration . Exposure to 2 mg /L ZnO nanoparticles significantly increased mortality incidence to 40 % and negatively affected metamorphosis of Xenopus laevis . Tadpoles exposed to 2 mg /L ZnO nanoparticles experienced slower progression of staging resulting in tadpoles with an average stage of 56 at the conclusion of the study which was significantly lower than control tadpole staging . Tadpoles exposed to 0 .125 mg /L ZnO nanoparticles experienced faster stage progression along with larger body measurements indicating that low dose exposure to ZnO nanoparticles can be beneficial to growth and metamorphosis of Xenopus laevis . Chronic exposure of 0 .3 mg /L CuO nanoparticles caused significant mortality and affected the rate of metamorphosis by slowing stage progression . Exposure to lower concentrations of CuO nanoparticles induced increased stage progression and body measurements , indicating that low dose exposure can have beneficial effects on metamorphosis . Tadpoles exposed to 0 .15 mg /L CuO nanoparticles experienced similar stage progression and growth as control tadpoles for the majority of exposure .
URI: http : / /hdl .handle .net /2346 /16511
Date: 2009-05

Citation

Acute and developmental toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles (ZnO, TiO2, Fe2O3, and CuO) in Xenopus laevis. Master's thesis, Texas Tech University. Available electronically from http : / /hdl .handle .net /2346 /16511 .

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