Nanoengineering of surfaces to modulate cell behavior : nanofabrication and the influence of nanopatterned features on the behavior of neurons and preadipocytes

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Title: Nanoengineering of surfaces to modulate cell behavior : nanofabrication and the influence of nanopatterned features on the behavior of neurons and preadipocytes
Author: Fozdar, David Yash
Abstract: Promising strategies for treating diseases and conditions like cancer , tissue necrosis from injury , congenital abnormalities , etc . , involve replacing pathologic tissue with healthy tissue . Strategies devoted to the development of tissue to restore , maintain , or improve function is called tissue engineering . Engineering tissue requires three components , cells that can proliferate to form tissue , a microenvironment that nourishes the cells , and a tissue scaffold that provides mechanical stability , controls tissue architecture , and aids in mimicking the cell’s natural extracellular matrix (ECM ) . Currently , there is much focus on designing scaffolds that recapitulate the topology of cells’ ECM , in vivo , which undoubtedly wields structures with nanoscale dimensions . Although it is widely thought that sub -microscale features in the ECM have the greatest vii impact on cell behavior relative to larger structures , interactions between cells and nanostructures surfaces is not well understood . There have been few comprehensive studies elucidating the effects of both feature dimension and geometry on the initial formation and growth of the axons of individual neurons . Reconnecting the axons of neurons in damaged nerves is vital in restoring function . Understanding how neurons react with nanopatterned surfaces will advance development of optimal biomaterials used for reconnecting neural networks Here , we investigated the effects of micro - and nanostructures of various sizes and shape on neurons at the single cell level . Compulsory to studying interactions between cells and sub -cellular structures is having nanofabrication technologies that enable biomaterials to be patterned at the nanoscale . We also present a novel nanofabrication process , coined Flash Imprint Lithography using a Mask Aligner (FILM ) , used to pattern nanofeatures in UV -curable biomaterials for tissue engineering applications . Using FILM , we were able to pattern 50 nm lines in polyethylene glycol (PEG ) . We later used FILM to pattern nanowells in PEG to study the effect of the nanowells on the behavior preadipocytes (PAs ) . Results of our cell experiments with neurons and PAs suggested that incorporating micro - and nanoscale topography on biomaterial surfaces may enhance biomaterials’ ability to constrain cell development . Moreover , we found the FILM process to be a useful fabrication tool for tissue engineering applications .
URI: http : / /hdl .handle .net /2152 /6881
Date: 2010-02-04

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Nanoengineering of surfaces to modulate cell behavior : nanofabrication and the influence of nanopatterned features on the behavior of neurons and preadipocytes. Doctoral dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin. Available electronically from http : / /hdl .handle .net /2152 /6881 .

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