Development of management practices for artichoke production in southwest texas

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Title: Development of management practices for artichoke production in southwest texas
Author: Shinohara, Togo
Abstract: This research included studies for transplant and field crop management with thepurpose of optimizing stand establishment , crop performance and nutritional quality ofartichoke (Cynara scolymus L . ) grown in southwest Texas .Post -transplanting heat (35 /20oC vs . 25 /10oC , day /night temperatures ) or drought[30 % Water holding capacity (WHC ) vs . 60 % WHC] stress alone or in combinationsignificantly reduced shoot or /and root growth of artichoke seedlings . Combined heatand drought stresses strongly affected shoot water status and root growth . Results fromthis study imply that it is desirable to improve stand establishment by either conditioningthe seedlings to improve root growth or by preventing leaf dehydration by these stresses .Therefore , effects of plant growth regulators (PGR ) on root growth and shoot waterstatus were examined .Ethylene regulators , including precursors or a releasing compound [DLmethionine (MET ) , 1 -aminocyclopropane -1 -carboxylic acid (ACC ) and ethephone (ETH )] , and inhibitors [amino -ethoxyvinylglycine (AVG ) and 1 -methylcyclopropene (1 -MCP )] were applied to seedlings to evaluate their effect on root growth and development . ACC and ETH (1 -100 M ?L -1 ) enhanced root hair , root area and lateralroots (only with ETH at 30 M ?L -1 ) .The effects of film -forming antitranspirants and abscisic acid (ABA , 500 -2000mg ?L -1 ) foliar application on physiological responses , water status and hardiness ofartichoke transplants were examined under drought stress . ABA at 1000 mg ?L -1enhanced drought tolerance of transplants which was associated with the maintenance ofshoot water status via stomatal closure . Film -forming antitranspirants were not effectiveto mitigate drought stress . These results suggest that ACC and ETH as root enhancers ,and ABA as a plant water conditioner , could be useful PGR ?s to enhance standestablishment in artichoke seedlings .Field artichoke performance in response to irrigation [50 , 75 and 100 % cropevapotranspiration (ETc )] and N (0 -180 kg ?ha -1 ) rates were investigated during threeseasons at Texas A &M AgriLife Research in Uvalde , TX . Irrigation was more effectivethan N rates to optimize artichoke yield . Yield reduction by 50 % ETc was associatedwith a decrease in head number and weight . The highest yield was obtained with 100 %ETc and 120 kg ?ha -1 N . This study also showed that deficit irrigation significantlyimproved artichoke head quality , such as phenolic content , but with significant yieldlosses .
URI: http : / /hdl .handle .net /1969 .1 /ETD -TAMU -3181
Date: 2009-05-15

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Development of management practices for artichoke production in southwest texas. Available electronically from http : / /hdl .handle .net /1969 .1 /ETD -TAMU -3181 .

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