Fabrication and testing of nano-optical structures for advanced photonics and quantum information processing applications

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Title: Fabrication and testing of nano-optical structures for advanced photonics and quantum information processing applications
Author: Khan, Mughees Mahmood
Abstract: Interest in the fabrication of nano -optical structures has increased dramatically in recent years , due to advances in lithographic resolution . In particular , metallic nanostructures are of interest because of their ability to concentrate light to well below the diffraction limit . Such structures have many potential applications , including nanoscale photonics , quantum information processing and single molecule detection /imaging . In the case of quantum computing and quantum communication , plasmon -based metal nanostructures offer the promise of scalable devices . This is because the small optical mode volumes of such structures give the large atom -photon coupling needed to interface solid -state quantum bits (qubits ) to photons . The main focus of this dissertation is on fabrication and testing of surface plasmon -based metal nanostructures that can be used as optical wires for effciently collecting and directing an isolated atom or molecule's emission . In this work , Ag waveguides having 100nm ?50nm and 50nm ?50nm cross sections have been fabricated ranging from 5 ?m to 16 ?m in length . Different types of coupling structures have also been fabricated to allow in -coupling and out -coupling of free space light into and out of the nanometric waveguides . The design of waveguides and couplers have been accomplished using a commercial finite difference in time domain (FDTD ) software . Different nanofabrication techniques and methods have been investigated leading to robust and reliable process conditions suitable for very high aspect ratio fabrication of metal structures . Detailed testing and characterization of the plasmon based metal waveguides and couplers have also been carried out . Test results have revealed effective surface plasmon propagation range . 0 .5dB / ?m and 0 .07dB / ?m transmission losses have been found for 100nm and 50nm wide waveguides respectively , which correspond to 1 /e propagation lengths of 9 ?m and 60 ?m . Input coupling effciency was found to be 2 % and output coupling effciency was found to be 35 % . The fabrication and testing results presented provide critical demonstrations to establish the feasibility of nanophotonic integrated circuits , scalable quantum information processing devices , as well as other devices , such as single molecule detectors and imaging systems .
URI: http : / /hdl .handle .net /1969 .1 /ETD -TAMU -1165
Date: 2009-05-15

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Fabrication and testing of nano-optical structures for advanced photonics and quantum information processing applications. Available electronically from http : / /hdl .handle .net /1969 .1 /ETD -TAMU -1165 .

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