Effects of context encoding and cuing: tests of the outshining and overshadowing hypotheses

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Title: Effects of context encoding and cuing: tests of the outshining and overshadowing hypotheses
Author: Manzano, Isabel
Abstract: The following experiments looked at how encoding information and available cues at test can influence context effects . More specifically , the present experiments investigated the overshadowing and outshining hypotheses . Experiment 1 established a new method for attaining robust reinstatement effects by using movie scenes . Experiment 2 found support for the outshining hypothesis . So , if verbal and contextual cues were encoded and verbal cues were present at test , then context reinstatement through the reinstatement of the movie scenes would have little effect on memory . However , in the absence of verbal cues at test , significant context effects were found showing that the verbal cues were able to outshine the context (i .e . , the movie scenes ) . Experiment 3 extended the outshining hypothesis by showing that strengthening the association between the verbal cues and the target items led to greater outshining of the movie scenes by the verbal cues . Experiment 4 looked at the overshadowing hypothesis and showed that if the context (i .e . , the movie scenes ) was not encoded well , but the verbal cues were then the context was overshadowed by the verbal cues . Further , if the association between the verbal cue and target items was encoded , then the overshadowing effect was greater as compared to cases where the association between the two items was not encoded . Finally , Experiment 5 found that if context was well encoded but verbal cues were not well encoded then the verbal cues were overshadowed by the context . It was also found that encoding the association between the context and target led to a more robust overshadowing effect as compared to cases where the association was not encoded .
URI: http : / /hdl .handle .net /1969 .1 /85965
Date: 2008-10-10

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Effects of context encoding and cuing: tests of the outshining and overshadowing hypotheses. Available electronically from http : / /hdl .handle .net /1969 .1 /85965 .

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