N/Z equilibration

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Title: N/Z equilibration
Author: Bell, Elizabeth
Abstract: The N /Z , or ratio of neutron to proton , degree of freedom may be used to study intermediate energy nuclear collisions to give information about the origin of emitted collision fragments . Establishing under what conditions the onset of N /Z equilibrium occurs will give a better understanding of the physics of the equation of state through the use of simulation codes . If the nuclear equation of state can be elucidated in terms of the N /Z dependent component and how the N /Z dependent component varies with density , then the equilibrium ratio of protons to neutrons inside high density neutron stars can be inferred , allowing for prediction of cooling rates and supernovae mechanisms . In the current study , isotopic and isobaric ratios at thetalab=40o with cuts of 10 % and 20 % most central events , respectively , are studied for their N /Z equilibration signals . Light charged particles , or LCPs , are found to be emitted from systems which have not yet fully N /Z combined ; the fragments with A=3 are emitted from the least equilibrated systems . Intermediate mass fragments , or IMFs , are seen to be emitted by N /Z equilibrated sources , within statistical error bars . The N /Z tracer method is used with ratios of isotopes and isobars to see how the amount of nuclear stopping or N /Z mixing changes as a function of the centrality of the event . The N /Z observable is used to reinvestigate earlier findings of the isotope and isobar ratio observables and shows the progression (or lack of it , in some cases ) of the N /Z equilibration . This observable has proven to be a clear and sensitive tool to use when considering the differences in N /Z mixing of the systems at two energies .
URI: http : / /hdl .handle .net /1969 .1 /2306
Date: 2005-08-29

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N/Z equilibration. Available electronically from http : / /hdl .handle .net /1969 .1 /2306 .

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